How early do you really need to get to the airport?

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Airlines are pretty clear about how early you should get to the airport: anywhere from 90 minutes to four hours before your departing flight, depending on where you’re going. But how early do you really need to be there? The answer to that question isn’t all that clear-cut and involves several factors.

Here’s what you need to consider:

How early do you need to show up to the airport to catch your flight? (Photo by oneinchpunch/Shutterstock)

Important factors to consider

Will you be checking any bags?

If you need to check luggage, you’ll need to account for the time this will take. To expedite the process, we recommend that you pay for your checked bags online before arriving at the airport. In doing so, you may be able to quickly and easily print out your bag tag from an airline kiosk without having to wait in line or talk to a customer service agent (though this option isn’t always available).

Average time before a flight after which airlines no longer accept bags:

  • Domestic Flights (within the U.S.): 45 minutes prior to departure
  • International Flights (from/to the U.S.): 60 minutes prior to departure

If you miss these windows, you will still be able to make your flight but will not be allowed to check any luggage.

Is the flight domestic or international?

The first thing to consider when determining just how early you’ll need to arrive at the airport to catch your flight is whether you’re traveling internationally. I always tell friends, family, and fellow travelers that while there’s some leeway with domestic flights, international flights are not the time to mess around.

Airlines will often recommend that passengers show up two to four hours before an international flight, depending on the departure airport.

Personally, when departing from airports in the U.S., I show up around 45 minutes prior to departure. For many solo travelers, this should be enough time.

Another thing to consider is whether or not you plan on checking bags. I seem to always be able to get what I need in my carry-ons. But if you are planning on checking a bag, familiarize yourself with your airline’s checked baggage policies, especially the cutoff time past which checked bags are no longer accepted.

How busy is the airport going to be?

Consider the time of year

If you plan to travel during the holidays, take extra consideration, and plan accordingly. With an increase in the number of travelers, you could run into more traffic on your way to the airport and longer lines once you arrive. As a rule of thumb, it’s best to arrive:

  • 2 hours early for domestic flights
  • 3 hours early for international flights

This will give you plenty of time to check your bag (if needed) and make it through security. Plus, a little extra time will go a long way in keeping your anxiety at bay, which is key to a pleasurable travel experience.

Those booking holiday travel should also consider using a credit card that offers travel protections. Delays and cancellations happen, unfortunately, and seem even more common during peak travel times (think Thanksgiving, Christmas, etc.). The right credit card can reimburse you for things like trip delays and cancellations and baggage delays, too.

Consider your departure time

Your departure time can often affect how busy the airport is going to be when you arrive. If you’re leaving on a 4am flight on a Tuesday morning, chances are the airport is not going to be as crowded as it would be at 9am on a Friday morning. This, of course, isn’t a hard and fast rule. But it’s definitely something to consider.

Most time-consuming steps at an airport

Checking in for your flight

With nearly every airline offering online check-in through a browser or an app, you should never wait until the day of departure to check-in for your flight at the airport. Unless online check-in is unavailable or you need to check bags, this will let you bypass the ticketing counters and kiosks.

If you need to check-in at the airport, prepare for long lines. (Image by Sorbis/Shutterstock)

When checking in in person, you can expect to spend around 15-20 minutes on average in line for a domestic flight. When checking in for an international flight, plan for up to 30 minutes.

Always allow for additional time at ticketing/check-in counters and kiosks around holidays and during severe weather events.

Airport security

Immigration, passport control — and even more security

At some international airports, another hurdle to get through is immigration and passport control upon departure. This is the case at many airports in Europe and even flights to the U.S. from Canada.

At Toronto International Airport (YYZ), it’s not uncommon for passengers bound for the U.S. to spend a half-hour, or possibly even longer, at U.S. Immigration and Customs Preclearance.

Those wait times will vary depending on the time of day and number of international flights but are a large factor in why airlines may recommend arrival times for some flights of four hours in advance.

For international departures from the U.S. and Mexico, you shouldn’t need much more time than if you are traveling domestically. However, for international flights departing from other countries, it’s important to look up and follow your airline’s recommended airport arrival time. Major U.S. and Canadian airlines, including Air Canada, American Airlines, Delta and United, each provide a guide for passengers on their websites.

Even once you clear the hurdles above, you might even find yourself encountering additional security. On some flights bound for the U.S., there can be additional security and screening procedures at the departure gate that can run another 20 to 30 minutes. That happened to me on a flight from Sydney to Los Angeles.

You might need to clear secondary screening before certain flights like flights from Australia to the U.S. (Image by Tooykrub/Shutterstock)

Airline boarding policies

For those of you looking to press your luck, there is one last thing to consider. Let’s say you’ve managed to check-in for your flight, clear security, pass through passport control, and make your way to your gate with five minutes to go before the posted departure time. You might think you’ve made your flight. Unfortunately, you missed it.

In the U.S., airlines close the boarding door 10 minutes before departure. Airlines outside of the U.S. do it even earlier. Air Canada, for example, closes the boarding door 15 minutes prior to departure, while Air France closes the boarding door 20 minutes before departure. So plan your journey through the airport based on when the boarding door closes, not the flight’s posted departure time.

Bottom line

Airlines have long told passengers to show up 90 minutes prior to departure for domestic flights and up to four hours for some international flights. These are reasonable recommendations, but if you are familiar with an airport, can bypass the check-in counters, and are enrolled in expedited security programs like TSA PreCheck, you may be able to show up later than that. Remember, though, that while it might not be the most enjoyable experience to hang out in an airport longer than necessary, you should never press your luck to the point to which you miss your flight.

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Featured image by aanbetta/Shutterstock.

Meghan Hunter is a contributor to Million Mile Secrets, he covers topics on points and miles, credit cards, airlines, hotels, and general travel.

Editorial Note: We're the Million Mile Secrets team. And we're proud of our content, opinions and analysis, and of our reader's comments. These haven’t been reviewed, approved or endorsed by any of the airlines, hotels, or credit card issuers which we often write about. And that’s just how we like it! :)

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Ryan James
2 months ago

When not stuck in the US, we live in Budapest, Hungary. For years, we ran a B & B so I would tell guests the airport was not huge, so an hour and a half was fine. The airport has increased in size over the years, so 2 hours is a good measure.

When I travel outside of Hungary, I compulsively try to be three hours early so I could take advantage of the lounge before boarding. It always put me off when the airline did not have a baggage drop off and only opened exactly 2 hours before departure. I felt cheated out of lounge time.

7 months ago

I largely agree with at least the domestic part of this. If you have pre-check, aren’t flying out ATL/ORD/JFK, there is no reason to arrive a full hour before. This is especially true at small airports and airports you are familiar with. I arrive at DCA, my home base, roughly 40 minutes before, and have made it into the flight when I arrived 30 minutes or less before.

I would advise infrequent travelers who are unfamiliar with general airport processes to arrive at least an hour early. Often these travelers cannot maneuver efficiently through security and terminals, and they don’t have their boarding pass on their phones or pre-printed.

10 months ago

It also greatly depends on the airport. If you are starting at a smaller airport then you may have less of a wait. If i am not familiar with the smaller airport i go online and look at their departure board for the same day a week in advance. How many flights are within 90 minutes of mine is a good is a good indicator of TSA times. One airport i know is packed from 5:30 – 7:00AM then is dead until 10am. I show up for an 8am flight after 7am with no wait but if i was there at 6:30 i would be in a line.

Andrew Wan
Reply to  Andrew
9 months ago

That’s a good strategy to look at departure boards a week in advance to get a sense of wait times. Thanks for sharing!

1 year ago

some airlines are in a hurry to close their counter, especially if they only have 1 flight a day – for international, i recommend allowing 2 hours at least, especially if it’s a busy travel time – TSA wait times vary a lot, so better to get that over with and have to hang out airside than be stuck in the terminal when the flight is boarded and gone (i say this as a volunteer at SFO, where unfortunately we see way too many folks come to us for help, which we’re unable to give – we don’t have phone numbers to call the gate to wait for a passenger, and we don’t have any pull with TSA to get late pax thru security any faster)

1 year ago

I would never cut it as close as 45 minutes before departure. I’ve seen TSA Pre-Check closed or even with long lines.

There are too many factors that cause you to be delayed. Recently I was on my way to the airport and there was an accident on the highway. This caused us to just make our flight despite us leaving home with plenty of time to spare.

Andrew Wan
Reply to  scott
1 year ago

I’d never cut it that close either, but then again I’m super paranoid and will do just about anything to make sure I don’t miss my flight with a plan A, B, and C.

That said, the last few times I’ve flown domestically, I probably could have arrived about 45-60 minutes prior to my flight and still have made it. So it probably just boils down to your personal preference and comfort level.

1 year ago

45 minutes seems way to little, especially at some airports(las vegas, Orlando, and laguardia come to mind). Even with precheck, I often encounter long waits, plus sometimes requiring trams to get to the gate.

Also, there are places that don’t have precheck or don’t have it open. Terminal 5 in O’Hare rarely has precheck available, even if it is listed on the website. If I had gone by that, I would have completely missed my flight.

I also feel like some flights will start boarding 45 minutes from departure these days, making the possibility of missing rather high.

Andrew Wan
Reply to  beth
1 year ago

Probably depends on your personal comfort level and experience with the airport. I definitely do NOT have that comfort level haha.

That said, I do have CLEAR and TSA PreCheck, and thinking back to the last few times I’ve traveled domestically, I have flown through security in about 5-10 mins.

To each their own!

1 year ago

Actually, many airlines know connecting flights are always late and will wait until just before take off to close doors and they have many runway delays .

1 year ago

I am surprised at the airport arrival information. I would NEVER show up at the airport based on the times given. Considering the doors to a flight close before the actual departure time and lines for security can fluctuate greatly from day to day, I always try to arrive at least 2 hours before a flight. I also now live overseas. We always get held up at security because my husband has a titanium rod in his leg (this even happens in the US with TSA precheck). Then each airline operates its own way. Just flew to Israel on El Al Israel Airlines and the airline recommended arriving 3 hrs prior to departure. We got there 2.5 hrs beforehand and barely made the flight even though El Al has its own terminal and was only checking in people for that particular flight. I would much rather get to the airport early than miss a flight and ruin a well-planned holiday.

1 year ago

I would rather go too early than miss a flight. I have TSA Precheck, but that line can be long sometimes also. Better safe than sorry.